One of the acute epidemic infectious diseases is Cholera. This disease cause severs dehydration and can be fatal in a very short period if left untreated. The bacteria that transit this Cholera is Vibrio cholera (V. Cholera). The V. Cholera produces a kind of toxic strains that lead to extreme diarrhea in a person.
According to the World Health Organization, the symptoms of this virulent disease will be shown in human after ingesting contaminated food or water. Cholera affects both children and adults and can kill within hours if untreated.
To prevent cholera a multifaceted approach is required. “A combination of surveillance, water, sanitation and hygiene, social mobilisation, treatment, and oral cholera vaccines are used.” (http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs107/en/)
The Cholera disease can be epidemic when it enters the area with high number of population. This disease is treatable, typically with rehydration solution or ORS. Up to 6 Liter of ORS is required in first day to treat dehydration caused by Cholera. The administration of antibiotics is not only required to prevent wide spread of cholera but also contributes to increasing antimicrobial resistance.
Recently, FDA approved a “single-dose live oral cholera vaccine called Vaxchora (lyophilized CVD 103-HgR) for adults 18 – 64 years old who are traveling to an area of active cholera transmission with toxigenic Vibrio cholera”.
However, the vaccine is not typically recommended for most travelers from the United States, as most people do not visit areas of active cholera transmission.